Sunday, December 22, 2013

China, California, South Sudan (link round-up 12/23/13)

Latinos will outnumber white, non-Hispanics in California by 2014
The demographic landscape was not always a game of catch up. Fifteen year ago, the white non-Hispanic population outnumbered Latinos by about five million. Over the years, the Latino population increased through birth and immigration while the white population decreased through lower birth rates and people moving out of the state. Now, Latinos will reach a population of 15 million individuals, equivalent to the existing 15 million white non-Hispanics.

Although the Latino population has reached parity with the white non-Hispanic population, Latinos lag on income compared to their white cohorts. The median household income for Latinos was $44,300 in 2011 while the same measure for white non-Hispanics was $67,000. Latinos make up about 60 percent of low-wage laborers in California. Still, the community is changing rapidly.

Second-generation Latinos tend to experience greater upward mobility and to earn higher incomes. Meanwhile, immigrant youths are steadily closing the educational achievement gap.
Mayor Rahm Emanuel travels to China to promote Chicago
According to his public schedule, he's set deliver remarks at Tsinghua University in Beijing on Monday morning and later at a Choose Chicago luncheon. He's also set to address the minister of commerce, vice mayors and leaders of several major Chinese cities to sign an agreement related to trade with Chicago.

City officials did not immediately provide more details of his trip.
How the Federal Reserve was formed 100 years ago 
The U.S. financial system needed remaking. The United States had a long but less than illustrious history with central banking. Alexander Hamilton, the first Treasury secretary, believed a national bank would stabilize the new government’s shaky credit and support a stronger economy — and was an absolute necessity to exercise the new republic’s constitutional powers.

But Hamilton’s proposal faced opposition, particularly in the agricultural South, where lawmakers believed a central bank would primarily benefit the mercantile North, with its large commercial centers of Boston, New York and Philadelphia. “What was it drove our forefathers to this country?” said James “Left Eye” Jackson, a fiery little congressman from Georgia. “Was it not the ecclesiastical corporations and perpetual monopolies of England and Scotland? Shall we suffer the same evils to exist in this country?” Some founding fathers, including Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, believed that the bank was unconstitutional.

By 1811, Madison was in the White House. The Bank of the United States closed down. Until, at least, Madison realized how hard it was to fight the War of 1812 without a national bank to fund the government. The Second Bank of the United States was founded in 1816. It lasted a little longer — until it crashed against the same distrust of centralized financial authority that undermined the first. The populist Andrew Jackson managed its demise in 1836. 
Fears grow of civil war in South Sudan as rebels seize town
Clashes between rival groups of soldiers in the capital Juba a week ago have spread across the country, which won its independence from Sudan in 2011 after decades of war.

President Salva Kiir, from South Sudan's Dinka ethnic group, has accused Machar, a Nuer whom he dismissed in July, of trying to launch a coup. The two men have long been political rivals.

Machar dismissed the charge but has since said he is commanding troops fighting the government.
Interactive: How Y’all, Youse and You Guys Talk
Most of the questions used in this quiz are based on those in the Harvard Dialect Survey, a linguistics project begun in 2002 by Bert Vaux and Scott Golder. The original questions and results for that survey can be found on Dr. Vaux's current website.

The data for the quiz and maps shown here come from over 350,000 survey responses collected from August to October 2013 by Josh Katz, a graphics editor for the New York Times who developed this quiz. The colors on the large heat map correspond to the probability that a randomly selected person in that location would respond to a randomly selected survey question the same way that you did. The three smaller maps show which answer most contributed to those cities being named the most (or least) similar to you.

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